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Hackers Pocketed $878,000 from Cryptocurrency Bug Bounties in 2018

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Cryptocurrency Bounties

While hardcore cryptocurrency enthusiasts often tout blockchain for its heightened security, the technology is not perfect – and there are often tons of vulnerabilities in the code. Indeed, blockchain companies have received at least 3,000 vulnerability reports in 2018 alone.

According to stats from breach disclosure platform HackerOne, blockchain companies awarded $878,504 in bug bounties to hackers this year. The data was compiled in mid-December. By contrast, the total sum of bug bounties awarded by August was $600,000.

With $534,500 awarded, EOS creator Block.one accounts for more than 60 percent of all bounties handed out in 2018.

Here is the top three all-time chart when it comes to bug bounty rewards (please note this includes bounties from before 2018):

  • Block.one – $534,500
  • Coinbase – $290,381
  • TRON – $76,200

While cryptocurrency exchange desk Coinbase comes in second (with $290,381 in bug bounties), it’s been running a disclosure program since 2014. Block.one launched its disclosure program for EOS at the end of May. Shortly after that, one single hacker claimed $120,000 in bug bounties from Block.one in less than a week.

“Nearly 4 percent of all bounties awarded on HackerOne in 2018 were from blockchain and cryptocurrency companies,” a HackerOne spokesperson told Hard Fork.

Still, it seems blockchain companies remunerate hackers slightly better than other industries on HackerOne.

“The average bounty for all blockchain companies in 2018 was $1490, that is higher than the Q4 platform average of around $900.” the spokesperson added. “One of the top paid crypto hackers earned 7X the median software engineer salary in their country respectively.”

The blockchain bug problem is bigger than it seems

HackerOne told Hard Fork there are currently 64 blockchain companies on its platform at present. For context, there are more than 2,000 various cryptocurrency companies out there. This means the real number of vulnerabilities is likely significantly higher.

Just keep in mind that researchers found crippling vulnerabilities in both Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash this year – the former of which is blockchain‘s oldest and most well-established protocol out there. Earlier this year, reports suggested there were more than 34,000 vulnerable smart contracts in Ethereum-based projects alone.

Due to its immutability aspects, the severity of vulnerabilities on the blockchain is much more serious than in other centralized technologies, since there is no way of reversing transactions (unless we’re talking about EOS or other systems with built-in backdoors).

So if you were thinking about betting on blockchain to keep your funds safe, you might want to measure the risk.

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North Korea Amassed Cryptocurrency Through Hacking

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North Korea

North Korea has used cyberattacks and blockchain technology to circumvent economic sanctions and obtain foreign currency, according to a panel of experts reporting to the U.N. Security Council.

Pyongyang has amassed around $670 million in foreign and virtual currency through cyberthefts and used blockchain technology to cover its tracks, the panel told the Security Council’s North Korea sanctions committee, ahead of the council’s annual report, Nikkei has learned.

It is the first time the panel has given details on how North Korea obtains foreign currency through cyberattacks.

In its report, the panel recommended that member states “enhance their ability to facilitate robust information exchange on the cyberattacks by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea with other governments and with their own financial institutions,” to detect and prevent attempts by North Korea to evade sanctions.

The report obtained by Nikkei, which is soon to be formally submitted to the Security Council, says North Korea waged cyberattacks on overseas financial institutions from 2015 to 2018. Economic sanctions imposed on Pyongyang over its nuclear and missile programs have restricted the North’s exports of coal, a key earner of foreign exchange.

The government has stolen money through cyberattacks, creating a pool of illicit funds that has grown since 2016, the panel said. The attacks are believed to be conducted by a specialized corps within the North Korean military and are now an important part of North Korean government policy.

Over 10 million users of Interpark, a South Korean e-commerce site, have had their personal information stolen in cyberattacks. Hackers demanded a total of $2.7 million in ransom in exchange for returning the stolen data.

The South Korean government has determined that the thefts were carried out by the North. The U.N. experts believe the attacks were aimed at obtaining foreign currency.

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PrimeXBT To Expand Influence As Crypto Winter Comes to An End

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PrimeXBT, the 4th generation cryptocurrency exchange and trading platform that has the entire industry buzzing, is hard at work for preparing for the cryptocurrency market’s next major expansion.

For over a year now, the prices of top cryptocurrencies have been falling. PrimeXBT has helped traders who were eager to profit off of falling prices by offering short-selling with 100x leverage across all crypto assets. With the current Crypto Winter nearing an end, PrimeXBT is aiming to aggressively expand its influence in the market and launch exciting new features in the coming days.

How PrimeXBT Has Captured The Crypto Market’s Attention

With declining prices everywhere, and trading ranges tightening as prices of top cryptocurrencies consolidate and the market bottoms, PrimeXBT has been among the most profitable platforms for traders across the globe.

When volatility dries up, price swings are a lot fewer and further in between, and are often less violent than traders in the cryptocurrency market have grown accustomed to. This leads to less overall profit for traders who were used to the massive profits generated during the previous bull run.

Enter PrimeXBT, a newcomer in the crypto market that launched this past February to much hype and excitement across the industry. Despite the platform being new, it’s been built from the ground up using decades of experience across traditional markets – the team behind PrimeXBT knows how to turn profits in any market conditions, and are arming traders with all the tools they need to succeed.

PrimeXBT offers the most leverage available anywhere in the crypto space, with 100x leverage being available across not only Bitcoin, but Litecoin, Ripple, EOS, and Etheruem too. No other crypto exchange even comes close, not even BitMEX.

Even More Features: PrimeXBT Crushes All Competition

In addition to profit-driving features such as 100x leverage and short-selling to profit off the bear trend, PrimeXBT has many other features that can help traders to gain a competitive advantage in today’s market.

Advanced Charting Tools

The cryptocurrency market can be difficult to predict. Last month, Bitcoin neared its previous bottom only to surge over 10% to $4,200. Once it reached the local high, the price was swatted down by bears to $3,800.

Using the advance charting tools found at PrimeXBT, traders can better anticipate upcoming movements, and prepare themselves to extract the most profit out of price swings, regardless of which direction the price goes.

Charting can help traders identify the direction, or help to discover resistance and support areas to set entry or exit prices that ensure the highest level of profitability.

Multiple Order Types

Price consolidation can be confusing for traders who are unsure as to which direction the market will move next. We already know that the advanced charting tools can help traders prepare. PrimeXBT takes this a step further by offering multiple order types, as well as the ability to set stop loss and take profit prices as an order is being placed.

Even if a trader forgets to set these important stop loss and take profit prices, PrimeXBT allows submitted orders to be edited to add this information and ensure the trader leaves no profit on the table.

Aggregated Liquidity

Traders want the best price always. Unfortunately, many exchanges suffer from low liquidity as traders have exited the cryptocurrency market. Not, PrimeXBT. The trading platform sources liquidity from 12 different locations, ensuring the traders can tap into unrivaled liquidity and ensure the best entry or exit prices.

Never sit waiting for an order to execute again.

Bank-Grade Security and Infrastructure

Aside from waiting for orders to fill, nothing is more frustrating than submitting an order only to get an “order submission error.” PrimeXBT offers the most stable and reliable experience found in the crypto market, thanks to bank-grade infrastructure. PrimeXBT’s platform is extensively tested for reliability, in addition to security and safety.

PrimeXBT’s bank-grade quality also extends to the level of security if offers to traders, and offers unique features such as address whitelisting, two-factor authentication, and so much more.

Even More Features

PrimeXBT requires no KYC process, keeping your personal details private. The platform offers multiple ways to deposit funds, from simple Bitcoin deposits, to fiat currencies like USD and EUR, and even other cryptocurrency types.

The advanced trading platform also encourages users to customize their experience through a number of helpful widgets, and boasts dual-screen support for professional traders that need to watch multiple assets at once.

PrimeXBT Helps Traders Increase Profitability In More Ways Than One

The users of PrimeXBT have more than one way to turn a profit in the cryptocurrency market. In addition to the best profit-driving trading tools the market has to offer, PrimeXBT also creates an opportunity for near endless revenue driving through its 4-level affiliate program.

Traders can spread the word about PrimeXBT’s features, and in turn earn revenue from any traders they refer to the platform. Unlike other exchange’s referral programs, PrimeXBT lets you earn revenue from not only the traders you refer, but any traders your referrals refer as well.

PrimeXBT: What’s Next for the Crypto Market?

PrimeXBT already has all of the features any cryptocurrency trader could ask for, so what possibly could they be cooking up that has the industry in such an uproar? At the moment, they’re not saying, but a spokesperson for the platform has promised that “exciting new features” are coming to the platform “very soon.”

Traders everywhere have already begun speculating as to what else PrimeXBT can offer when the platform already has so many tools to choose from, but given the 4th generation platform being backed by decades of market experience, anything is possible.

With the Crypto Winter coming to a close, the market is ready to expand again and PrimeXBT is preparing to help traders grow their profits to unprecedented heights.

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TradingView Lists HB10 As Its First Crypto Index

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Bitcoin Price

In yet another sign of the continued maturation of the cryptocurrency industry, HB10, Huobi’s crypto-based index, has been added to the well-known financial trading charts & analysis platform TradingView. It is the first such product listed on TradingView.

“As a go-to site for high-volume and API traders as well as the retail commodity, forex, and of course crypto trading community around the world, we feel TradingView is a perfect fit for HB10,” said Livio Weng, Huobi Global’s CEO. “We’re both pleased and honoured to have ours be the first crypto fund of its kind listed there.”

A weighted fund consisting of the nine biggest cryptocurrencies by trading volume as determined through stratified sampling (plus Huobi Token, Huobi’s native token), HB10 was launched last year as part of Huobi’s ongoing efforts to meet the needs of the global cryptocurrency community as well as the financial markets at large. In addition to adding HB10, all of of Huobi’s coin-to-coin trading pairs have also been added to TradingView, providing plentiful options for traders looking to get involved in arbitrage and other forms of trading. “This is just the beginning,” said Weng. “As additional coins and pairs are added to Huobi Global, they will also appear on TradingView as well.”

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Bitcoin SV Team Fixes Vulnerabilities for Multiple Bitcoin Blockchains

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Bitcoin SV

In their tireless dedication to making Bitcoin SV (BSV) the most secure, professional cryptocurrency on the market, the Bitcoin SV Node implementation team, a division of nChain, are always on guard. As a part of that effort, the team, working with Trail of Bits, recently caught three medium severity vulnerabilities in BSV, likely inherited from Bitcoin Core (BTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCHABC), and immediately moved to address them.

In a recent press release, nChain detailed the three vulnerabilities, which have already been fixed by the February 11 0.1.1 release of Bitcoin SV Node. All three weaknesses in the code would allow bad actors to overload the network and node processors with useless packets, potentially overloading the system with traffic. It should be noted that the potential damage would not leave businesses or users at risk of losing any funds or transactions.

This is a great catch by the teams involved. Although a slow and crippled network might be par for the course for BTC because of its inability to scale, overlooking this weakness harms adoption and enterprise use cases for cryptocurrency.

Keeping the BSV environment secure and efficient is part of the routine for the Bitcoin SV Node implementation team. Steve Shadders noted in a January podcast that every piece of code goes through a process of error checking to ensure the network does not get exposed to harm.

In this case, a full security audit, partially funded by CoinGeek, helped catch the vulnerabilities. Daniel Connolly, Bitcoin SV Node Lead Developer, commented:

“By organising this security audit (with funding by CoinGeek) and by sharing the results in a responsible and secure manner, the Bitcoin SV Node team, nChain and our partners at CoinGeek demonstrate our commitment to increase the quality of Bitcoin software and professionalise the engineering process.”

By finding the weaknesses, the team not only improved BSV, but also showed the BTC and BCHABC teams how they can fix the same vulnerability in their code. That benevolence is further proof of BSV’s aim to be a more grown up and professional cryptocurrency.

The Bitcoin Association’s Founding President Jimmy Nguyen remarked, “The results and improvements exemplify how the Bitcoin SV Node team is taking steps to prepare Bitcoin SV to have the reliability needed to become the world’s new money and the global enterprise blockchain. It also demonstrates that Bitcoin SV is now leading the Bitcoin industry, even helping other projects that deviated from the Satoshi Vision for Bitcoin.”

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Kraken offering a $100,000 Reward for Discovery of Quadriga Coins

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Kraken

The Kraken mission is to accelerate the adoption of cryptocurrency so that the world can benefit from greater financial freedom and inclusion. This is why we’ve consistently done more than provide one of the best crypto exchange experiences.

Since 2014 we have invested significant resources and lent our crypto expertise to the MtGox trustee and investigators, supporting the return of as much client funds as possible and as soon as possible. Events like this impact the entire industry, which is why we want to get involved if there’s a way we can help.

About a month ago, on January 26, QuadrigaCX (a Canadian crypto exchange with clients around the world) suspended operations. Seven weeks prior, their CEO passed away suddenly and unexpectedly, leaving the business without a continuity plan.

Supposedly, he was the only person who knew the location of and/or could access the client funds (fiat and crypto) totaling approximately $190 million US dollars (belonging to 115,000 clients). Some say the events and circumstances surrounding this case are too suspicious to be believed.

Kraken wants to bring awareness and attention to this case, in hopes that we can help discover some or all of the missing client funds.

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Cases of Money Laundering Linked to Cryptocurrency in Japan up Tenfold in 2018

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Japan

Over 7,000 cases of suspected money laundering linked to cryptocurrencies were reported to police in 2018, the National Police Agency said Thursday.

The figure jumped more than tenfold from the 669 cases reported in a shorter period between April and December in 2017, when it became mandatory for cryptocurrency exchange operators to report transactions suspected to be linked to the movement of illegally obtained cash.

Cryptocurrency can be transferred quickly and largely anonymously, with police saying that in some cases virtual currency was used to pay for illegal drugs or child pornography.

Among the 7,096 suspicious transactions, some users with different names and birth dates shared the same ID photo, while others appeared to log into their accounts from overseas even though their listed addresses were in Japan.

Including all financial transactions, 417,465 cases of suspected money laundering or other abuse were reported to the police in 2018, up 17,422 from a year earlier. Most of them involved banks and other financial institutions, which made 346,014 reports in total, followed by credit card companies, with 15,114 cases reported.

After analyzing the reports, the NPA provided information on 8,259 cases to investigating authorities, up 1,096 from a year earlier. As a result, police handled 1,124 cases, mainly involving fraud.

To counter the rising number of suspicious transactions, the NPA plans to train specialists in data analysis as well as test artificial intelligence technology that will be able to detect illegal trades after being taught to recognize patterns related to drug deals and money laundering transactions.

Japan has seen large digital currency heists in recent years amid a rise in the number of people purchasing the various currencies.

In 2014, ¥48 billion ($433 million) worth of bitcoin was stolen from the now-defunct cryptocurrency exchange Mt. Gox. In January last year about ¥58 billion worth of the digital currency NEM was taken from customers’ accounts at Tokyo-based bourse operator Coincheck Inc.

In June, the Financial Services Agency, which regulates cryptocurrencies in Japan, ordered six virtual currency exchange operators to improve internal controls, including taking measures against money laundering.

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Facebook and Telegram Are Hoping to Succeed Where Bitcoin Failed

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Blockchain Solutions

Some of the world’s biggest internet messaging companies are hoping to succeed where cryptocurrency start-ups have failed by introducing mainstream consumers to the alternative world of digital coins.

The internet outfits, including Facebook, Telegram and Signal, are planning to roll out new cryptocurrencies over the next year that are meant to allow users to send money to contacts on their messaging systems, like a Venmo or PayPal that can move across international borders.

The most anticipated but secretive project is underway at Facebook. The company is working on a coin that users of WhatsApp, which Facebook owns, could send to friends and family instantly, said five people briefed on the effort who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of confidentiality agreements.

The Facebook project is far enough along that the social networking giant has held conversations with cryptocurrency exchanges about selling the Facebook coin to consumers, said four people briefed on the negotiations.

Telegram, which has an estimated 300 million users worldwide, is also working on a digital coin. Signal, an encrypted messaging service that is popular among technologists and privacy advocates, has its own coin in the works. And so do the biggest messaging applications in Korea and Japan, Kakao and Line.

The messaging companies have a reach that dwarfs the backers of earlier cryptocurrencies. Facebook and Telegram can make the digital wallets used for cryptocurrencies available, in an instant, to hundreds of millions of users.

All of the new projects are going after a market that has already proved popular with consumers. Venmo has taken off in the United States by making it easier to send payments by phone. And in China, many consumers use the payment system that operates inside the hugely popular WeChat messaging system.

“It’s pretty much the most fascinating thing happening in crypto right now,” said Eric Meltzer, the co-founder of a cryptocurrency-focused venture capital firm, Primitive Ventures. “They each have their own advantage in this battle and it will be insane to watch it go down.”

The companies all declined to comment on their coin projects. Most of them appear to be working on digital coins that could exist on a decentralized network of computers, independent to some degree of the companies that created them.

Like Bitcoin, the new cryptocurrencies would make it easier to move money between countries, particularly in the developing world where it is hard for ordinary people to open bank accounts and buy things online. The current designs being discussed generally do away with the energy-guzzling mining process that Bitcoin relies on.

But the messaging companies are likely to face many of the same regulatory and technological hurdles that have kept Bitcoin from going mainstream. The lack of a central authority over cryptocurrencies — a government or bank — has made them useful to criminals and scammers, and the designs of the computer networks that manage them make it hard to handle significant numbers of transactions.

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New VIP improvements make BitStarz the new Mecca for highrollers!

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BitStarz

BitStarz is attracting more big players than ever, and here’s why. Having a bunch of big winners in the casino is cool and all, and BitStarz has never had so many of them from separate players as in the past few weeks.

But let’s face facts. Any casino can be lucky enough to have a big winner, and after all, the casino is mostly about luck. As we cannot pull a magic lever to ensure players win, our resources and time are put into various areas where improvements actually can be made, all in order to enhance the VIP experience.

It’s all about the VIP Treatment

In the past weeks, BitStarz has done major changes to the casino in order to create the perfect environment for the biggest of players, and the amendments are really attracting some major ones. We’ve removed the max cash out limit, which means the players can withdraw all their winnings immediately, and thanks to our 10-minute average cash out time, they’re getting all their winnings with lightning speed.

They’re also assigned a Senior VIP Manager with over 10+ years’ experience in the industry, available 24/7 via phone, email, and WhatsApp. Someone that doesn’t just know the industry inside and out, but who’s also a great guy to be around.

On top of that. Tailored reward plans based on multiple variables and increased bet limits on both slots and table games are also reasons why high rollers from around the world flock to BitStarz.

Major wins cashed out immediately

To give one example of some recent big wins, one of the VIPs landed a 62.4 BTC win in a single spin on Fire Lightning and went on to win 45.84 BTC on Platinum Lightning Deluxe and then 69.19 BTC on Brave Viking. If you add all this together, that’s over $730,000, and how long did it take for him to receive the money from the time he requested a cash out later? 5 minutes.

The cornerstone of BitStarz Casino is fairness and integrity, and if you’ve won money in the casino, you should be able to get all your winnings out immediately. No stalling, no restrictions per week or month, no complications. This and the reasons above send a clear message – if you’re looking for a fair casino and a true VIP experience, look no further than BitStarz.

Offering what players actually care about

BitStarz, Srdjan Kapor – BitStarz Marketing Manager – commented:

“As many of us are players, it was a simple matter of just putting ourselves in their shoes and asking what we care about the most when we play. As a result, these major changes were put into place, and it’s extremely clear that this has been very widely appreciated among the VIPs!”

www.bitstarz.eu

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COSS Exchange Undergoes Major Revamp

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COSS

27h Feb, Singapore, Singapore – Singapore’s leading cryptocurrency trading platform is proud to announce its extensive overhaul which includes major improvements in its engine, user interface and a variety of long-anticipated features, all of which can potentially catapult it into the top flight of the crypto-exchange leagues globally.

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With a scalable architecture that can handle one million orders per second per pair, the new COSS engine 2.0 corners the market on speed and power with the ability to handle the most demanding of trading conditions. CCXT, the largest API trading community in the world has given its official stamp of approval to the COSS API. CCXT-certification is accorded to only 8 crypto exchanges globally, the likes of Binance, Bitfinex and Bittrex, with COSS being the only one in Singapore. This certification and API listing gives COSS exposure to a vast bot maker community which has the potential to bring large liquidity to the exchange. Notably, the COSS platform has also been security-tested and hacking-certified by cybersecurity industry experts Hacken.io.

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“We are thrilled to see the community’s response to our rebuild,” says COSS CEO Rune Evensen. “That always gives you extra energy moving forward. I feel we are well-positioned in a crowded market and we will do our very best to stand out.”

A long-time fiercely popular feature of the exchange, the FSA (Fee Split Allocation) has been a main attraction for traders and investors of the COSS token, where 50% of total trading fees on the platform is distributed via smart contract to all COSS token holders, allowing them to passively accumulate value by simply holding COSS tokens.

To that, COSS has now added or improved an array of features like Fiat Pairs Trading where cryptocurrency is bought directly with fiat – USD via a custody solution and EUR and GBP via credit cards; Stop Loss that safeguards you from taking losses beyond your comfort level; Trade-On Graph where users experience a more intuitive trading experience by trading on the chart itself; Debit Card and Exchange Integration where users can link their debit card to COSS exchange and pay directly for goods and services with cryptos; Institutional Accounts, an easy and convenient way for institutional investors to get into the crypto space; E-Learning and Quick Buy for the man in the street to enter the crypto world; as well as mobile apps, unique trading promo structures and referral rewards plans.

Fiat_Trading

Furthermore, the COSS Team is currently developing even more features that COSS Traders can look forward to – Basket Trading where users can diversify their risk and acquire a portfolio of cryptocurrencies conveniently and flexibly; Multiple Timeframe and Comparison Charts for easier assessment of cryptocurrencies; Portfolio Watchlist that reflects any trade executed in the users’ personal portfolio on their account, giving a clear vision of trading performances to help make educated trading decisions as well as the ability to set a watchlist of price movements; Dynamic Withdrawal Fee where users can choose the amount of fees they want to pay for their COSS withdrawals; and finally Network Status where users can see realtime status of cryptocurrencies and network transactions to make accurate decisions on deposit and withdrawal of favorite digital assets. Clearly, COSS has no intention of being outdone.

COSS_CEO_Rune_Evensen

Well on its way to becoming one of the first licensed exchanges in Singapore, COSS has kept its regulatory focus and works closely with ACCESS (Singapore Crypto Currency and Blockchain Industry Association) and SPICE (Standardization of Practice In Crypto Entities) Program. “We have focused on compliance since Day One and aim to be amongst the first applicants once available,” assures Evensen. “Singapore is THE place to be for us and we wouldn’t jump for any regulatory arbitrage.”

About COSS.IO

COSS stands for Crypto-One-Stop-Solution and represents a platform which encompasses all features of a digital economical system based on cryptocurrency. The COSS system consists of an exchange, an e-wallet, a platform for ICO launches and promotional trading campaigns, a fiat gateway, a market cap widget, a marketplace and more. The COSS platform unifies all transactional aspects that are usually managed by means of FIAT money, and offers multiple cryptocurrency-related services in one place. The list of potential features of the platform can be infinitely extended, and will continue growing as the platform evolves. Visit COSS.IO

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Bahrain Central Bank Issues Rules on Crypto-assets

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Bahrain

The Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB) has issued the final rules on a range of activities relevant to crypto-assets, including licensing, governance, capital, control environment and risk management.

Crypto-assets operating under blockchain distributed ledger systems have drawn much regulator attention globally, and the CBB rules are aimed at ensuring that the related activities are brought within the regulatory perimeter and are subject to comprehensive regulatory and supervisory measures, said a CBB statement.

Khalid Hamad, Executive Director – Banking Supervision, said: “We will continue to enhance our regulatory framework in order to keep pace with the innovations taking place in the major financial centres around the globe. The CBB’s introduction of the rules relating to crypto-assets is in line with its goal to develop comprehensive rules for the FinTech eco-system supporting Bahrain’s position as a leading financial hub in the Mena region.”

The CBB crypto-asset rules deal with the rules for licensing, governance, minimum capital, control environment, risk management, AML/CFT, standards of business conduct, avoidance of conflicts of interest, reporting, and cyber security for crypto-asset services. They also cover supervision and enforcement standards including those provided by a platform operator as a principal, agent, portfolio manager, adviser and as a custodian within or from Bahrain.

In addition, for those licensed by the CBB as crypto-asset exchanges, the regulatory framework also contain rules relevant to order matching, pre and post-trade transparency, measures to avoid market manipulation and market abuse, and conflicts of interest.

Recognising the emerging nature of these activities and the risks involved, the CBB rules also specify, among other measures the following:

  • Need for enhanced due diligence (EDD) when onboarding new clients;
  • Requirements to ensure that no encrypted safe custody accounts or “wallets” are maintained that cannot be retrieved;
  • A mandate to ensure that keyman risks are adequately managed including by having the necessary insurance covers;
  • The clients are educated and given clear instructions for use of the safe custody wallets.

TradeArabia.com News Service

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